Medi-Cal vs. Medicare
Medicare is a federal insurance program paid out of Social Security deductions. All persons over 65 or older who have made Social Security contributions are entitled to the benefits, as well as persons under 65 with disabilities who have been eligible for Social Security disability benefits for at least two years, and persons of any age with end-stage renal disease.
Medicare has several parts including Hospital Insurance (Part A) and Medical Insurance (Part B). Those persons eligible for Social Security or Railroad Retirement benefits as workers, dependents or survivors, are eligible for Part A, Hospital Insurance, when they turn 65. If a person has not worked long enough to be covered for benefits, s/he may enroll in Part A and pay a monthly premium. If Medicare Hospital Insurance is purchased, that person must also enroll in Part B, Medical Insurance.
Participants in the Medicare program are liable for co-payments and deductibles as well as for monthly payments for Part B coverage. Medicare is not based on financial need. Anyone who meets the age, disability and/or coverage requirements is eligible.
Medicare does not pay for all medical expenses, and usually must be supplemented with private insurance (“medigap”) or consumers can enroll in an HMO plan that contracts with Medicare. After 3 days of prior hospitalization, Medicare will pay up to 100% for the first 20 days of skilled nursing care. For the 21-100 days, the patient will pay a co-payment. The premiums and copayments are increased every year. There will be no Medicare coverage for nursing home care beyond 100 days in any single benefit period.
It should be noted that Medicare only pays for “skilled nursing care,” does not pay for “custodial care” and the average stay in a nursing home under Medicare is usually less than 24 days. Thus, few can look to Medicare to pay for any substantial nursing home costs.
Medi-Cal is a combined federal and California State program designed to help pay for medical care for public assistance recipients and other low-income persons. Although Medi-Cal recipients may receive Medicare, the Medi-Cal program is not related to the Medicare program. Medi-Cal is a need- based program and is funded jointly with state and federal Medicaid funds.
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SSI and other categorically-related recipients are automatically eligible. Others, whose income would make them ineligible for public benefits, may also qualify as “medically needy” if their income and resources are within the Medi-Cal limits, (current resource limit is $2,000 for a single individual). This includes:
- Low-income persons who are 65 or over, blind or disabled may qualify for the Aged and Disabled Federal Poverty Level Program
- Low-income persons with dependent children
- Children under 21
- Pregnant women
- Medically indigent adults in skilled nursing or intermediate care or those who qualify for Medi-Cal funded home and community based waiver programs
Share of Cost
The State sets a “maintenance need standard”. Since January 1, 1990 the maintenance need standard for a single elderly/disabled person in the community has been $600 monthly; the Long Term Care maintenance need level (i.e., personal needs allowance when someone is in a nursing home) remains at $35 monthly for each person.
Individuals whose net monthly income is higher than the state payment rate may qualify for the program if they pay or agree to pay a portion of their income on monthly medical costs. This is called the share of cost. Individuals eligible with a share of cost must pay or take responsibility for a portion of their medical bills each month before they receive coverage. Medi-Cal then pays the remainder, provided the Medi-Cal program covers the services. This works much like an insurance deductible. The amount of the share of cost is equal to the difference between the “maintenance need standard” and the individual’s net non-exempt monthly income.
Important: All Medi-Cal beneficiaries who have a Medi-Cal share-of-cost of more than $500 will no longer have their Medicare Part B premium covered by Medi-Cal, it will automatically be deducted from the beneficiary’s Social Security check. This does not apply to Medi-Cal eligible nursing home residents as their Part B premium will continue to be covered by Medi-Cal.
Other Deductions from the Share of Cost
In addition to the “any income deduction” and the monthly maintenance needs allowance, any monthly medical premiums can also be deducted before the share of cost is determined such as your Medicare Part B premium. Other deductions can also be made, depending on the circumstances.
For example, under a legal settlement, Hunt v. Kizer, recipients may use old, unpaid medical bills for which the beneficiary is still legally responsible to reduce the monthly Medi-Cal share of cost. Some original documentation showing the billing statement is an outstanding balance should be provided to the County eligibility worker. The Share of Cost will be adjusted to reflect the cost of the outstanding balance, which could, for example, mean no share of cost until the old, unpaid bills are paid off. This is not automatic and should be discussed with the eligibility worker upon application for Medi-Cal.
Under the Johnson v. Rank settlement, recipients may use their share of cost to pay for medically necessary supplies, equipment or services not covered under the Medi-Cal program. A current physician’s prescription is necessary and must be put in the recipient’s record at the facility. This prescription must be a part of the physician’s plan of care. After a copy of the prescription and the bill is presented to the facility, the facility will deduct the cost from that month’s share of cost and bill the resident for the remaining share of cost.
What Does Medi-Cal Cover?
Medi-Cal pays for health care services which meet the definition of “medically necessary.” Services include: some prescriptions (although the Medicare Part D program now covers most prescriptions), physician visits, adult day health service, some dental care, ambulance services, some home health, X-ray and laboratory costs, orthopedic devices, eyeglasses, hearing aids, some medical equipment, etc.
All covered services, or the remaining costs over the share of cost of nursing home care, will be covered if the individual meets income/resource requirements. Some services such as home health care, durable medical equipment, and some drugs require prior authorization.
Nursing home care is covered if there is prior authorization from the physician/health care provider. Residents are admitted on a doctor’s order and their stay must be “medically necessary”. Residents are allowed to keep $35 of their income as a personal needs allowance. Residents with no income may apply for the Supplemental Security Income/State Supplemental Program (SSI/ SSP), and, if eligible, they will receive a payment of $50 as a personal needs allowance.
If the individual qualifies for Medi-Cal, s/he does not need private “medigap” or HMO insurance to pay for costs, though if such insurance is carried, the premiums are deducted from income when computing the share of cost, and therefore costs the beneficiary nothing. If the HMO coverage includes drug benefits, maintaining the HMO coverage may become more important , as the beneficiary will continue to receive drug benefits from the HMO, which may be more comprehensive than the Medicare Part D coverage.
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